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Secondary Motives in Psychology-Learned Motives in Psychology-Secondary Motives

Secondary Motives- in this blog you can read about the Secondary Motives in Psychology- if you are searching best blog on Secondary Motives  then you are at right place.

  • Sociogenic Motives



Secondary motives play an important role in our life. These are the cause of the development of personality As personality is the product of heredity and environment, no man in the world lives alone. According to Aristotle, man is a social animal. In order to adjust in his society, he has to learn many things from his environment throughout his life. That's why it is difficult to explain them under one head.

Classification of Secondary Motive:

1) Emergency motives

2) External motives

3) Social motives

4) Psychological motives Emergency motives

1)Emergency motives:

Emergency motives are evoked in an emergent situation and the individual has to react promptly to cope the situation.

  • Escape Motive :

Escape Motive is evoked in the situation of danger. The individual's purpose is to secure himself from the danger. The emotion of fear is evoked when an individual cognizes any type of danger for his life, property or the self-prestige. He intends to save himself from the danger and reacts in two ways to escape i.e.

 i) flee from the situation or

ii) face the situation

When an individual finds himself weak or unweaponed in an situation, he runs away to save his life. Not only the human, but the animals also cognize danger and try to run away or conceal themselves from the enemy or they over-powered ery in horror and inform their fellow beings about the danger. Human beings have also invented a technique of instant over-spreaded information about danger in the form of Siren and black outs; they have prepared to face the expected danger through martial and defensive training.

A human child does not know about dangers; but as he grows older, he learns about the dangers through conditioned learning and associations as in J.B. Watson's experiment, a child named Albert learned to fear from the rabbit. After the age of 04, a child starts learning to avoid the danger or face the danger.

  • Combat Motive:

Combat motive evokes when an individual is restrained and denied of his needs. He is enraged and with an emotion of anger, he combats the attacker or e.g. if you try to snatch a toy from the child or a piece of meat from the dog's mouth, (your snatching) it will evoke the combat motive in a child and dog. dog's The child may bite you or may weep when he finds helpless before you. The dog may bark at you and attack you. 

The animal's behaviour in combat motive is unlearned, but the human behaviour is modified by learning, so the individual differences are observed in the combat behaviour of an illiterate villager and an educated civilized citizen. The illiterate may call bad names and fight with hands. stick or pistols whereas the educated civilized person will seek the legitimate ways of court and security council.

  • Effort Motive:

Effort Motive is evoked when there is any physical, social or psychological obstacle on the way to goal achievement. The individual will put his all efforts to remove the obstacle or try to master or control the intervening factor. His emotion of determination will help him to try again and again and not to give in before the intervener. So the effort motive makes an individual's behaviour constant and consistent in all the difficult situations. 

This motive is universally observed in all the animals, human children and the elders. Sometimes, the animal behaviour in effort motive becomes a guide for the human behaviour as the story of spider and king Robert Bruce shows. The defeated King Robert Bruce was encouraged to see the constant effort of spider who fell many times but continued her effort and in the end was able to reach her web. The effort motive and the emotion of determination are the key to success.

  • Pursuit Motive:

Pursuit motive is evoked in the cognitive situation of prey. Emotion of eagerness energizes an individual's behaviour to capture the prey. So a hunter runs after his prey as a player runs after his ball. Every individual in society is eager to capture his prey or achieve his goal. So pursuit motive involves a competition spirit among the people who are after the same goal e.g. the players when play in opposite team, the purpose of each team is to win the match.

 At time, every player of the both teams tries to capture the ball. All the students in a class try to get distinction in the exam. So it is the pursuit motive which enforces them to work hard: likewise, all the hunting animals like lion, leopard, dog and cat are eager to capture their prey.

2)External Motive:

External Objective motives Objective motives are sub-divided into:

i) Exploratory motive

ii) Manipulatory motive

ii) Play motive

iv) Self-assertion and self-abasement motive

i) Exploratory motive

 Exploratory motive is observed both in humans and animals. A human child at the age of 3 months, starts to explore world by moving his eyes after the moving objects or toys, as he grows older, he breaks his toys to look into the toy's construct and use. The emotion of curiosity energizes his behaviour to explore things and get know-how about. As he is able to speak, he questions his friends, elders and teaches about an unknown thing.

 So the journey from unknown to known depends on the exploratory motive. From the time immemorial, man has been exploring the world and has made many discoveries and inventions in the field of art and science.

ii) Manipulatory Motive:

Manipulation helps the animals and human beings to learn to handle and use the things found in their environment. The learning ability of the animals is inferior to the human learning ability as he not only uses his hands but also uses his intellect. A human child does not keep his ability to learn the rules and techniques of games alone; but as he grows younger, he learns to operate and repair different machines, instruments and apparatus etc. and thus he adjusts himself as an expert in his environment.

iii) Play Motive:

 Play motive is also very important among the objective motives. It not only makes man to exert his physical and mental abilities but also promotes his sociability by creating the emotions of sympathy (to feel with others) and Empathy (feeling into a person or a thing); cooperation and coordination with the members of pro-team and emotions of eagerness, competition, winning over the opponent team, tolerance patience and sportsman spirit. A player learns to keep his morale high. and struggle continuously to be successful in achieving his goal and play motive helps man to be physically and mentally fit.

iv) Self-assertion and self-abasement motive:

 Every man has both the motives evoked in different situations. The same person is sometimes a brave and bold, the other time a coward and timid according to the situation. When a person is among the people who are inferior to him in any physical or mental attributes like beauty, health. strength, knowledge and skill, he feels himself superior and asserts himself in his behaviour i.e. dominating.

3)Social Motives:

Social motives are very important in the life of a social animal or man. We all the social animals can't live alone and cannot be happy alone as we cannot satisfy our all needs alone. That's why, man made society, formed groups and associated himself as a member of in-group or out-group with reference to the diversity of the groups. He made many societies, clubs and organizations for the betterment of human beings.

 He made rules for the existence and maintenance of  these societies, clubs and organizations and trained himself to act accordingly Thus he has developed a social or group mind along with his personal c individualistic mind. Often he has to sacrifice his personal wishes and desires ove his group's desires. That's why, his behaviour changes in the mob and he act against his personal desires. Social motive energizes an individual's behaviour in peace and war. During peace, an individual tries his utmost to promote the safety and security through his education, profession in all the fields of life. During wan be stands by his nation against the enemy. 

He sacrifices his life to save not only his own bouse but the houses of his whole nation and country. Thus social motives evoke unity, love, sympathy, cooperation, coordination and the formation of leadership in a group for its existence and survival. Every body loves to live according to his social norms and feels happy when he achieves the social goal. His failure to achieve the social motives makes him prey to complexes, anxieties and behaviour disorders

4)Psychological motives:

Psychological motives are individualistic in nature as they are related to self esteem, self-security, self-exhibition, self-freedom and self-assertion. As psychology is the scientific study of an individual's behaviour in relation to his environment, psychological motives are regarded very important in the development of an individual's behaviour and personality. The satisfaction of these motives lead to normality and dissatisfaction of these motives leads to abnormality. 

That's why the developmental psychologists, abnormal psychologists, clinical psychologists, therapists, educational psychologists and criminologists study the behaviour of an individual from his remote childhood to trace the determinants of his behaviour through genetic methods, case history method, interviews method, self-inventory or questionnaire method, rating scales, the situational tests and projective techniques to investigate the conscious or unconscious factors motivating an individual's behaviour in certain direction.

processes of psychology and applied psychology

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